There are different plant classification but for our landscaping proposes we are going to put them in three different categories:
The first one are trees which we can subdivide in two different kinds; deciduous that are all those that drop their leaves during fall and coniferous that are mainly pine and spruce trees; the most of cases they keep their leaves during winter.
The second category are shrubs; smaller and heavily branched, most of them deciduous but we also have some coniferous in this category. They survive the winter as well; some trees can also be considered shrubs based on the kind of pruning that make them look smaller and heavily branched. Examples are Korean lilac, Dog wood, Caragana, etc.
The third category are perennials; they have structures like bulbs, rhizomes, crowns that allow them to survive periods of dormancy and storage food to start new growth when the weather conditions are good. Examples are daylilies, hostas, ferns, ornamental grasses, etc.
Annual plants are those that survive just one season and should be planted the following year like geraniums.
Early spring maple flowers
Hot wings maple red samaras in late summer
Unfortunately not all kind of maple trees adapt well to our climate but we have some options some are Amur maple, Hot Wings Maple, rugged charm maple among few others. Usually foliage turns from yellow to red during the fall.